While some advanced driver-assistance systems like adaptive cruise control are in widespread use today, many other technologies are inherent in the operation of Connected Vehicles, Automated Vehicles, and Connected and Automated Vehicles.
Connected Vehicles (CVs) can communicate with other CVs, infrastructure, “the cloud,” and vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and bicyclists. CVs supply useful data to the driver to help make safer or more informed decisions.
Automated Vehicles (AVs; sometimes referred to as autonomous vehicles), can use cameras and on-board sensors such as radar and Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) to operate in isolation from other vehicles. Aspects of the driving functions, such as steering, braking, etc. can occur without driver input. AVs gain synergies from being “connected” but are not reliant on those connections for operation; when AVs are “connected,” they can be considered a Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV).
Different levels of driving automation have been defined by SAE International.